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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| May-August  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since November 12, 2019

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The effectiveness of Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) morphine-ketamine compared to Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) morphine to reduce total dose of morphine and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) in postoperative laparotomy surgery
I Gusti Ngurah Mahaalit Aribawa, Tjokorda Gde Agung Senapathi, Made Wiryana, I Ketut Sinardja, I Gede Budiarta, I Made Gede Widnyana, I Wayan Aryabiantara, Pontisomaya Parami, Pande Nyoman Kurniasari, Adinda Putra Pradhana
May-August 2017, 1(2):31-34
Background: Laparotomy may cause moderate to severe after surgery pain, thus adequate pain management is needed. The addition of ketamine in patient controlled analgesia (PCA) morphine after surgery can be the option. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of PCA morphine-ketamine compared to PCA morphine in patient postoperative laparotomy surgery to reduce total dose of morphine requirement and pain intensity evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS). Methods: This study was a double-blind RCT in 58 patients of ASA I and II, age 18-64 years, underwent an elective laparotomy at Sanglah General Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group A, got addition of ketamine (1mg/ml) in PCA morphine (1mg/ml) and patients in group B received morphine (1mg/ml) by PCA. Prior to surgical incision both group were given a bolus ketamine 0,15mg/kg and ketorolac 0,5mg/kg. The total dose of morphine and VAS were measured at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Result: Total dose of morphine in the first 24 hours postoperatively at morphine-ketamine group (5,1±0,8mg) is lower than morphine only group (6,5±0,9mg) p<0,001. VAS (resting) 6 and 12 hour postoperative in morphine-ketamine group (13,4±4,8 mm) and (10,7±2,6 mm) are lower than morphine (17,9±4,1mm) p≤0,05 and (12,8±5,3mm) p≤0,05. VAS (moving) 6, 12, and 24 hour postoperative morphine-ketamine group (24,8±5,1mm), (18±5,6mm) and (9±5,6mm) are lower than morphine (28,7±5,2mm) p≤0,05, (23,1±6,0mm) p≤0,05, and (12,8±5,3mm) p≤0,05. Conclusions: Addition of ketamine in PCA morphine for postoperative laparotomy surgery reduces total morphine requirements in 24 hours compared to PCA morphine alone.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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“ICE” – A rare cause for coagulopathy in a case of massive post-partum hemorrhage
Navkiran Singh Gill, Cheow Jaan Perng, Alice Vong Liew, Norhuzaimah Bt Julai Julaihi
May-August 2017, 1(2):35-38
A case of massive post-partum hemorrhage in East-Malaysia, associated with 3-4 methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) abuse otherwise known as Ecstasy or locally as “ICE”, injected by the patient as a means to suppress labor pains prior to hospital presentation. We report a rare case of substance abuse that lead to life threatening hemorrhage in a maternal patient of productive age group. Presenting to the labor suite in second stage of labor in breech presentation, exhibiting active neuropsychiatric symptoms of intoxication like euphoria, drowsiness, mydriasis but able to obey commands. A rapid response by the Obstetric on-call team proceeded with an assisted-breech delivery. Post-delivery, a baby girl with poor Apgar score was born and intubated. The mother was then posted for an Examination Under Anesthesia as she was noted to have slow blood oozing per-vaginally using a single shot spinal as she exhibited features of difficult intubation and high risk of aspiration. During the procedure, she tipped into massive PPH complicated with DIVC, and was rushed into the intensive care unit for stabilization and back into the operation theatre, needing a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) as definitive bleeding control. She required large scale resuscitative efforts peri-operatively including continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) as well as regional intensive care consultation. We describe, chronologically the anesthetic challenges faced in managing a patient in acute substance intoxication at presentation to our district hospital during twilight hours. We then explain the pharmacodynamics of MDMA in provoking coagulopathy. No reports of similar cases in the South-East Asia region.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  277 31 -
Programmed intermittent epidural bolus improves efficacy of patient controlled epidural analgesia in postoperative pain management
Tjokorda Gde Agung Senapathi, I Made Gede Widnyana, Made Wiryana, I Gusti Ngurah Mahaalit Aribawa, Putu Agus Surya Panji, Sonni Soetjipto, Adinda Putra Pradhana
May-August 2017, 1(2):44-47
Background: Postoperative acute pain will have negative impacts if not handled properly so it must be treated effectively. Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA) allows the patient to have an active role in determining the need of analgesia personally. Programmed Intermittent Epidural Bolus (PIEB) is a new method which proven better than Continuous Epidural Infusion. Ropivacaine has similar characteristic to Bupivacaine but with minimal cardiotoxic effect. Fentanyl as an adjuvant can accelerate the onset of action of local anesthetics in epidural analgesia. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of PCEA+PIEB with PCEA as a modality of postoperative analgesia. Methods: Total 54 patients undergoing major surgery of the abdomen and lower extremities were divided into 2 groups randomly: PIEB+PCEA and PCEA. Then we did an evaluation of VAS, PCA demand, and total consumption of solution Ropivacaine 0.1% + Fentanyl 2 mcg/mL at 4 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours postoperative Results: VAS at resting and at moving in both groups were found clinically comparable, although statistically, VAS at moving at 4 hours and 24 hours postoperative were lower in PCEA+PIEB group (p < 0.01). PCA attempted and PCA given were lower in PCEA+PIEB group (p = 0.05). Total consumption of solution until 8 hours postoperative was comparable in both groups but at 24 hours postoperative it was much greater in PCEA+PIEB group (p < 0.01). Conclusions: PCEA+PIEB have greater efficacy than PCEA. VAS (at resting and at moving), PCA attempted, and PCA given were lower in PCEA+PIEB group. Total consumption of solution Ropivacaine-Fentanyl until 8 hours postoperative was comparable, but at 24 hours postoperative it was much greater in PCEA+PIEB group. In orthopedic surgery, VAS at resting was obtained below 30 mm in PCEA+PIEB group but VAS at moving was obtained in the category of moderate pain in both groups.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Perioperative management of patient with hemophilia a underwent orthopedic surgery
Tjokorda G A Senapathi, I Made Gede Widnyana, I Gusti Ngurah Mahaalit Aribawa, Christopher Ryalino
May-August 2017, 1(2):29-30
Hemophilia presents challenging consideration for anesthesiologists. In non emergency cases it is essential that factor VIII is raised to its optimal activity prior to surgery. Intra operative bleeding is a fatal complication in hemophilia. Certain measurements must be taken under considerations to manage this case for anesthesia. Peripheral lines should be secured with utmost care. Intramuscular injections and arterial punctures must be avoided. Intubation and airway positioning should be done gently in deep plane anesthesia. Small vessels hemostatis must be taken care of by the surgeon. A multidisciplinary team has to be involved when patients with hemophilia are planned for surgery. The knowledge related to replacement therapy should be mastered not only by hemat logist, but also by the whole team involved in patient management.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Leadership in anesthesiology: not just a one man show
Tjokorda G A Senapathi, IMG Widnyana, Marilaeta Cindryani
May-August 2017, 1(2):39-43
Full text not available  [PDF]
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