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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 66-71

A randomized control trial on comparative effect of scalp nerve block using levobupivacaine versus fentanyl on the attenuation of pain and hemodynamic response to pin fixation

1 Department of Critical and Intensive Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Anesthesiology, Rama Medical College, Hapur, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Anesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India
4 Department of Anesthesiology, SKMCH, Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India
5 Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, SSSIHMS Whitefield, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shagufta Naaz
Department of Anaesthesiology, ll India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/BJOA.BJOA_183_20

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Background: The application of head fixation device and tightening of the pins on the scalp acts as an intense noxious stimulus with an increased hemodynamic response. We aimed at comparing the efficacy of scalp nerve block (SNB) using levobupivacaine against intravenous fentanyl bolus dose followed by continuous intravenous infusion for attenuation of pain and hemodynamic response to pin fixation. Methods: One hundred and eight patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to two groups: Group F received a bolus of intravenous fentanyl (2 μg/kg) followed by continuous maintenance infusion and Group S, in which a bilateral SNB was performed with 20 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine. Hemodynamic variables and pain scores were the primary outcomes noted. Intraoperative isoflurane and additional fentanyl requirements, emergence time and any side effects were also recorded. Results: The variation in hemodynamics in terms of heart rate (per minute) at pin fixation (Group F [95.88 ± 7.79] and Group S [89.02 ± 5.42]) was significant (P < 0.001). There was a significant change in mean arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) between the groups at pin fixation Group F (104.70 ± 9.18) and Group S (92.88 ± 6.92) (P < 0.001). A significant reduction in pain and intraoperative fentanyl requirements was also seen. Emergence from anesthesia was significantly longer in Group F as compared to Group S (P < 0.001). No group had any significant complication. Conclusion: SNB is a reasonably safe and effective means for smooth control over hemodynamics and lesser intraoperative analgesic requirements compared to the fentanyl infusion in adult patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomies.

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