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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 44-49

The interaction of neuroimmunology, neuromodulator, and neurotransmitter with nociceptor and MAPK signaling


Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Management, and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar-Bali, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
Dewa Ayu Mas Shintya Dewi
Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Management, and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Jl. Kesehatan no.1, Denpasar 80114, Bali
Indonesia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.15562/bjoa.v3i1.134

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Physiological pain is a protection mechanism against tissue damage or potential tissue damage. Inflammation pain is followed by tissue damage due to temperature, mechanical and chemical stimuli which increase crosstalk between neuron nociceptor, immune system, neuromodulator and neurotransmitter, and MAPK (Mitogen Activating Protein Kinase) signal. Initially, immune cell is produced at the primary afferent nerve endings and spinal cord, modulate thermal sensitivity and mechanic through MAPK signaling, then neuromodulator and neurotransmitter at the afferent nerve endings will regulate the innate immune response, adaptive and vascular


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